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吴慧娟:为建筑业高质量发展积蓄力量

发布时间:2020-07-01

建(jian)筑业(ye)(ye)的(de)成长(zhang),离(li)不(bu)开国家的(de)引导与扶持。吴慧娟表(biao)示(shi),近年来(lai),随着(zhe)“放管(guan)服”改(gai)革(ge)的(de)持续推进,建(jian)筑业(ye)(ye)转型升级走上了快车道(dao)。但(dan)是,当(dang)前经济社会发展对建(jian)筑业(ye)(ye)提(ti)出了更高要求(qiu),政府应当(dang)加大(da)“放管(guan)服”力度,抓住深化改(gai)革(ge)的(de)“牛鼻子”,创新(xin)理念(nian)、优化环境,激发行业(ye)(ye)发展新(xin)活力。

应当及早修订《建筑法》,为行业创造更大、更好的发展空间

吴慧娟说,建(jian)筑业(ye)(ye)(ye)随着(zhe)国家改革开放(fang),经过几十年(nian)发(fa)(fa)展,在市场结构、商业(ye)(ye)(ye)模式和生(sheng)产组织(zhi)方(fang)式等方(fang)面(mian),已经发(fa)(fa)生(sheng)翻天覆地的(de)变化,而《建(jian)筑法》已施行20余年(nian),虽(sui)有两次(ci)修订,但(dan)已不(bu)能满(man)足当前(qian)建(jian)筑业(ye)(ye)(ye)高质量发(fa)(fa)展的(de)新(xin)要(yao)求。作为工程建(jian)设领(ling)域(yu)的(de)根本大法,《建(jian)筑法》的(de)全面(mian)、系(xi)统修订,关系(xi)着(zhe)行业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)(fa)展大局,影响(xiang)全行业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)(fa)展的(de)突出问(wen)题(ti),必须从立法角度找到根源(yuan),并给(ji)出解决对策。  

作为支柱产业,建筑业应当有与之相匹配的产业地位

吴(wu)慧(hui)(hui)娟称,多年(nian)(nian)(nian)来(lai),建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)业(ye)(ye)(ye)有(you)支(zhi)柱(zhu)(zhu)性(xing)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)贡(gong)献(xian),却(que)无支(zhi)柱(zhu)(zhu)性(xing)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)地位。2017年(nian)(nian)(nian),国(guo)务院办公厅(ting)发布《关于促进建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)业(ye)(ye)(ye)持(chi)续健康发展(zhan)的(de)意见》(以下简称《意见》),提出(chu)“建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)业(ye)(ye)(ye)是国(guo)民经(jing)济的(de)支(zhi)柱(zhu)(zhu)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)”,肯(ken)定了行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)贡(gong)献(xian)。实际上,建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)业(ye)(ye)(ye)占GDP的(de)比(bi)重(zhong),自2010年(nian)(nian)(nian)以来(lai)一直维持(chi)在6.6%以上,2019年(nian)(nian)(nian)达(da)7.19%,始终发挥着支(zhi)柱(zhu)(zhu)性(xing)产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)重(zhong)要作用(yong)。如今,“中(zhong)国(guo)制造、中(zhong)国(guo)创造、中(zhong)国(guo)建(jian)(jian)造”不断被(bei)社会各(ge)界并(bing)列(lie)提及,这(zhei)也说明建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)业(ye)(ye)(ye)正得到越来(lai)越多人(ren)的(de)认可。因此,吴(wu)慧(hui)(hui)娟提出(chu),在“十四五”规(gui)划中(zhong),希望建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)业(ye)(ye)(ye)在第二产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)中(zhong)有(you)所提及,获得更多产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)扶持(chi)政策,提振全行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)改(gai)革(ge)发展(zhan)的(de)信(xin)心。

加大放权力度,留足创新空间

在(zai)吴慧娟看来,目前(qian),政府对某些领(ling)域依然管得过多、过细。这(zhei)种管理模式,不仅加大了市(shi)场交易成(cheng)本(ben),导致产业创新(xin)不足(zu),而(er)且管理效果并(bing)不明显(xian),出(chu)现了事中(zhong)事后监管乏(fa)力的(de)(de)现象。以资质(zhi)改革为(wei)(wei)例(li),她说,政府将资质(zhi)作为(wei)(wei)管理手段,本(ben)意是为(wei)(wei)公(gong)(gong)共安全、公(gong)(gong)众利益设置的(de)(de)市(shi)场准入门槛,但在(zai)现实(shi)中(zhong),资质(zhi)过多过繁,形成(cheng)政府为(wei)(wei)企业背书的(de)(de)怪像,没有很(hen)好地发挥出(chu)市(shi)场的(de)(de)决定性作用。当(dang)前(qian),应当(dang)继(ji)续简(jian)化、优化资质(zhi)类别和等级设置,逐步取消不必要的(de)(de)资质(zhi)认定,让市(shi)场机制发挥作用,探索有实(shi)力、有能力、有信用的(de)(de)企业,突破限制,进入良性竞争,为(wei)(wei)建筑业高质(zhi)量发展营造(zao)更好的(de)(de)环境。

提升工程品质,为高质量发展打基础

要实现高质(zhi)量发(fa)展,全行业(ye)(ye)必(bi)须(xu)沿(yan)着《意见》规划的路(lu)径(jing),将改革(ge)推向深入(ru)。而(er)改革(ge)的核心目标之一(yi),便是实现产(chan)(chan)品(pin)的高质(zhi)量。吴慧娟分析称,建筑业(ye)(ye)的特点是产(chan)(chan)品(pin)固定(ding)且(qie)各(ge)不(bu)(bu)相同、人员流动技能素(su)质(zhi)不(bu)(bu)高、上下游关(guan)联产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)多(duo)供应链长,这导致(zhi)行业(ye)(ye)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)质(zhi)量参(can)差(cha)不(bu)(bu)齐。未来,要将每一(yi)个工程(cheng)(cheng)都(dou)建成精品(pin)工程(cheng)(cheng),打造(zao)“中国建造(zao)”品(pin)牌,必(bi)须(xu)优化产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)结构,向工程(cheng)(cheng)总承包转型;必(bi)须(xu)转变发(fa)展方式,大力(li)发(fa)展装配(pei)式建筑,向建筑产(chan)(chan)业(ye)(ye)现代化迈进。  

工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)总(zong)承(cheng)包(bao)作为国际通行的项(xiang)目(mu)组(zu)织实(shi)施(shi)方(fang)式,具有设计和施(shi)工(gong)深度(du)融(rong)合的特点。吴(wu)慧娟(juan)强调,从施(shi)工(gong)总(zong)承(cheng)包(bao)到(dao)工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)总(zong)承(cheng)包(bao),表面上是项(xiang)目(mu)组(zu)织实(shi)施(shi)方(fang)式的改变,实(shi)质上是通过(guo)管理集成效率的变革(ge),降(jiang)低投资风险、提高(gao)质量(liang)和效益、提升企业的竞争力。从政府监(jian)管角度(du)看,承(cheng)包(bao)不再分(fen)割化,由工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)总(zong)承(cheng)包(bao)单位负总(zong)责(ze),多元责(ze)任主体变为单一责(ze)任主体,责(ze)任更加清晰,更有利(li)于监(jian)管。

吴(wu)慧(hui)娟(juan)说,装(zhuang)配(pei)式(shi)建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)是建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)业(ye)高(gao)质量发(fa)展的重要支(zhi)撑(cheng)。装(zhuang)配(pei)式(shi)建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)以(yi)绿色发(fa)展为(wei)理(li)念,以(yi)科技进步为(wei)支(zhi)撑(cheng),强(qiang)调(diao)工(gong)(gong)业(ye)化(hua)和信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)化(hua)的深(shen)度融合。工(gong)(gong)业(ye)化(hua)的关键是标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化(hua),包括(kuo)设计(ji)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)、构件(jian)生产标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)和运(yun)输吊装(zhuang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化(hua),以(yi)及建(jian)(jian)造装(zhuang)备升级和智能机(ji)器人(ren)等的应(ying)用;信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)化(hua)的目标(biao)(biao)(biao),是运(yun)用以(yi)BIM(建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)模型(xing))、大数据、云(yun)计(ji)算、人(ren)工(gong)(gong)智能、物联网(wang)、移(yi)动互联网(wang)和区(qu)块链(lian)为(wei)代表的新技术(shu),推动项目全(quan)生命周期(qi)数据共(gong)享(xiang)和信(xin)(xin)息(xi)(xi)管理(li),为(wei)打造精品工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)、健康建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)提供支(zhi)撑(cheng)。吴(wu)慧(hui)娟(juan)提醒道,装(zhuang)配(pei)式(shi)建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)彻底(di)颠覆了传统(tong)粗(cu)放型(xing)建(jian)(jian)造方(fang)式(shi),是未(wei)来(lai)发(fa)展的必(bi)然趋势(shi),行(xing)业(ye)企业(ye)应(ying)当认真研(yan)究,积极转型(xing)。

改革用工制度,为高质量发展作保障

建(jian)筑业(ye)是一(yi)个拥(yong)有5000余万一(yi)线农民工(gong)(gong)的(de)行业(ye),要实现高质量发(fa)展,必须将这支数量庞大的(de)队伍,打造成(cheng)技术精湛的(de)产业(ye)工(gong)(gong)人群(qun)体。今年,受疫情(qing)影响,“用工(gong)(gong)荒”问题(ti)再次进入人们(men)的(de)视野,从一(yi)个侧(ce)面揭示了建(jian)筑业(ye)人才发(fa)展的(de)困境。

一方面(mian),建(jian)筑业“农(nong)民工”一直以无(wu)序、散(san)乱(luan)、体制外的(de)(de)(de)状态存(cun)在,建(jian)筑业普遍“脏(zang)乱(luan)差”的(de)(de)(de)施工环境(jing)、拖欠(qian)工资“重灾区”的(de)(de)(de)现实,让(rang)他们沒有(you)体面(mian)、没有(you)尊(zun)严。他们对建(jian)筑业没有(you)归属感,更融入不了城市(shi),这是“用工荒(huang)”存(cun)在的(de)(de)(de)根本原(yuan)因。谈及此事,吴慧娟感慨万千(qian)。她动(dong)(dong)情地说,在善待(dai)“农(nong)民工”方面(mian),政府的(de)(de)(de)行动(dong)(dong)“滞后”了。  

另一(yi)方面,为解决劳(lao)务用(yong)工(gong)(gong)的技能培(pei)训(xun)、工(gong)(gong)资(zi)支(zhi)付、养老保障(zhang)等(deng)问(wen)题,国家提出改革劳(lao)务用(yong)工(gong)(gong)制度,但仍未得到全(quan)面落实,“用(yong)工(gong)(gong)荒”问(wen)题仍频繁出现(xian),行业产业工(gong)(gong)人的培(pei)育进度缓(huan)慢。  

吴慧娟表示,当前(qian),用(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)制(zhi)度的(de)(de)改革势(shi)在(zai)必行。她建(jian)(jian)议,首先要(yao)将“农民工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)”作(zuo)(zuo)为“产(chan)业(ye)(ye)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)”培(pei)(pei)养。其(qi)次(ci),应(ying)当推动(dong)劳务企(qi)业(ye)(ye)转型,组建(jian)(jian)专(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)作(zuo)(zuo)业(ye)(ye)企(qi)业(ye)(ye),放开(kai)小微型企(qi)业(ye)(ye)建(jian)(jian)立,使(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)组织化(hua)、专(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)化(hua),让工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)产(chan)生归属感。再(zai)其(qi)次(ci),大(da)(da)型建(jian)(jian)筑业(ye)(ye)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)在(zai)用(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)上允(yun)许灵(ling)活一些,可(ke)以(yi)根据项目建(jian)(jian)设需要(yao),与工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)签订短期(qi)合(he)(he)同(tong),运用(yong)(yong)大(da)(da)数(shu)据、实名制(zhi)管(guan)理(li)等工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具(ju),灵(ling)活调配(pei)用(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),建(jian)(jian)立诚信制(zhi)度约束(shu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)行为,打开(kai)晋升渠道,使(shi)优秀(xiu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)成为正式员工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。最后,应(ying)通过校企(qi)合(he)(he)作(zuo)(zuo)、师傅带徒弟(di)等方式,加强工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程现(xian)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)人(ren)(ren)(ren)员和(he)建(jian)(jian)筑工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)教育培(pei)(pei)训,加大(da)(da)人(ren)(ren)(ren)才培(pei)(pei)养力度。这是产(chan)业(ye)(ye)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)队伍形成的(de)(de)重要(yao)保障,也是解决“用(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)荒”问题(ti)行之有效的(de)(de)举措。  

建筑业(ye)拥(yong)有(you)680家特级(ji)企业(ye),企业(ye)达42万(wan)家,从业(ye)人(ren)员5000余万(wan)人(ren),以(yi)大(da)数据、云计算、物联网和(he)移动互联网为代表(biao)的(de)新技术则为行业(ye)变革提(ti)供了新的(de)抓(zhua)手(shou)。基于(yu)此,吴慧娟(juan)相(xiang)信建筑业(ye)有(you)实力、有(you)能(neng)力尽快走上高(gao)质量发展(zhan)道路(lu)。虽然她提(ti)出(chu)要“用10年(nian)左(zuo)右时(shi)间(jian)”实现这一目标,但其言语间(jian),却(que)全是(shi)(shi)“只争(zheng)朝(chao)夕”的(de)紧迫感(gan)。以(yi)梦为马、努力当下,这正(zheng)(zheng)是(shi)(shi)业(ye)内所有(you)有(you)识之士的(de)共同认知。或许,这才是(shi)(shi)建筑业(ye)能(neng)够持续快速(su)健康发展(zhan)的(de)真(zhen)正(zheng)(zheng)力量所在。

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